By Carlos Alberto Fazano

On August 2nd, 2011, Carlos Alberto Fazano, was invited by one of the most respectable and well-known university in the Brazilian telecommunication educacional network system – INATEL - “Instituto Nacional de Telecomunicações” – National Institute of Telecommunications - to present a lecture about the history of electronics aiming to 150 students attending to the first year of telecommunication courses. In order to meet INATEL educational workshop portfoil for 2011, the 90 minutes presentation in Power Point format entitled; FROM THE SPARK TO THE CHIP covers the most representative landmarks in the evolution of electrical and radio sciences. Comprising a set of 80 slides including vídeo clips also, basically it encloses the following topics:

- Pioneers in Electricity
- The Ether theory
- Discovering the Ether
- The spark generation
- Early radio wave detectors
- The birth of thermionics
- The triode
- The Ionospheric propagation
- The battle of patents
- Radio broadcasting
- Architects of radio
- The classic circuits
- The quantum revolution – the solid-state physics
- The transistor
- The sunset of thermionics – the Nuvistor
- Forerunners of semiconductors technology
- The Integrated valve an IC of early twenties
- The Integrated circuit
- The consequences of the quantum revolution
- New trends in technology

The lecture was based in a selected bibliography and related films among them are:

- An Age of Innovation, by the editors of Electronics magazine, 1981 – USA
- Hazeau, H.A.G., Fifity Years of Electronic Components, 1921 – 1971, Philips publication dept., 1971, Holland.
- Stokes John W., 70 Years of Radio Tubes and Valves, Vestal Press, 1982, USA
- Tyne, Gerald F. J., Saga of Vacuum Tube, Howard, W. Sams, USA
- Philips, V. J., Early Radio Wave Detectors, Peter Peregrinus, England.
- Lessing, Laurence, Man of High Fidelity, Batam books, USA.
- Cheney, Margaret, Tesla Man out of Time, Batam Doubleday, USA
- Maclaurin, Rupert, Invention & Innovation in Radio Industry, The MacMillan Co., USA
- Arthur, W. Brian, The Nature of Technology: What it is and How it Evolves, Free Press, USA
- VHS, PBS 374 Home Vídeo, The Empire of the Air by Ken Burns, 1991, USA.

The attached photograph illustrates author during the presentation when he has commented also the importance to further the study on the history of radio sciences and related matters in technical schools and universities to improve the knowledge regarding the present status of our interconnected global world. In the mean time he emphasized the prolific work in spreading such new educational approach developed by several international instituitions and publications as:

- Antique Wireless Association, USA
- Tube Collectors Association, USA
- The Institution of Engineering and Technology, Inspec Inc., USA
- Radio Bygones magazine, England
- Antique Radio Magazine, Italy

For more information on: FROM THE SPARK TO THE CHIP as well as INATEL can be requested from: