||The miniaturizaton of
active as well as passive components to operate in an integrated
way was a perenial task in Electronics.
Over the years such continuous work was based in the search
for new materials, improvement in tooling, production processes
and so forth.
However, considering that over 50 years the valve was the backbone
of the electronic industry, the miniaturization process started
with thermionics with the lauching of the first integrated valves